The New Wave of British Heavy Metal

The New Wave of British Heavy Metal is a metal music movement that started in the United Kingdom during the late 70’s but found bigger recognition and extension throughout the 80’s. The movement developed as a reaction in part to the decline of early heavy metal bands such as Deep Purple, Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath. The NWOBHM bands adopted influences from the sound of blues and punk, increased the tempo and created a new, tougher and heavier sound, and it was a scene addressed to heavy metal fans exclusively. NWOBHM is considered to have set the major foundation to all the extreme music scene. . NWOBHM was musically characterized by fast upbeat tempo songs,power cords, fast guitar solos and melodic, soaring vocals, with lyrical themes often drawing inspiration from mythology and fantasy fiction.

Most famous and globally recognized bands that where formed in the 80’s where:

 Iron Maiden

Judas Priest


Tygers of Pan Tang


Angel Witch

The fans of the movement of course adopted the style of the bands that they saw as heroes directly. The style survives until today all over the world. The key elements of this style are:

the training shoes in colour white, that reach the point of the ankle

the leather jackets with studs

jackets full of band patches

ripped off denim trousers

cut off, up to the belly point, t-shirts

black and white striped leggings

big accessories like wrist bands and belts with metallic studs and chains

Long hair with fringe for both men and women



  • Terrybezer, 2008. Buyers’ Guide: NWOBHM[online]. Available at: <; [Accessed at 4 March 2012]
  • Rate your music, 2011. NWOBHM[online]. Available at: <>. [Accessed 4 March 2012]
  • Urban Dictionary, 2010.NWOBHM[online]. Available at: <>. [ Accessed 4 March 2012]
  • Roditi, A., 2012. My personal knowledge on NWOBHM. [other]( personal experiences, 5 March 2012)
By annaroditi

Interesting facts about the 80’s

The decade of the 80’s was a year that brought many changes in the history with main facts the Chernobyl infection and the fall of the Berlin wall. But apart from those, there where other happenings that changed the history.

The Mount Saint Helen’s catastrophe caused one of the strongest eruptions in north America, that has ever been  recorded. May, 1980

I.M. Pei wins the contest for the Louvre Museum in Paris, with his glass pyramid. In the beginning there was controversy but later on it became as loved as Louvre its own. 1981

The British government announces that the unemployment of the country increased to 11,1 % ,which was the highest percentage for 50 years. June 1981

The 40th president of the USA, Ronald Reagan, was almost assassinated by John W. Hinckley Jr. They found him on the crime scene and arrested him directly.March 1981

Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer are getting married at Saint Paul’s cathedral in London. 500 million people worldwide, are following the ceremony on the television. July 1981

The US American athlete Greg Louganis gets the highest points from all of the judges the World Aquatic championships, even though he hit his head on the board right before the jump. 1982

Argentina and  Great Britain are discussing about the rights of the Falkland Islands in the south Atlantic. After Argentina decided to send solders to claim the Islands as their property, a war started. Three months later, the British army defeated the Argentinian solders and occupied the islands. 1982

The Microsoft Corporation invents the Windows system and the software engineer Bill Gates becomes the richest man in the world. 1983

The third episode of starwars : the return of the Jedi, was released in the USA. 1983

The British genetic scientist Alex Jeffreys invents the genetic fingerprint which is crucial for the analysis of the genetics of the human. 1984

Linda Hunt is the first actress to win an Oscar for her performance as a character of the opposite sex in the movie ‘ A year in hell’. 1984

The British ice dancers Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean win the gold medal in Sarajevo.1984

A bomb of the IRA explodes in the Grand Hotel in Brighton where the conservative party is having a conference. Five people are found dead and thirty are injured. Margaret Thatcher insists on continuing the conference. October 1984

An oceanographic team found the wreck  of the titanic in almost 4 kilometers depth. Proof  is the collection of the porcelain dishes of the kitchen. 1985

The first of two strong earthquakes destroys parts of Mexico and many buildings in Mexico City are being demolished. Many rescue teams are looking for survivors under the debris and it was estimated that 20.000 people died. September 1985

In central Japan, the Jumbojet of the Japan Airlines crushed as the pilot lost control over the airplane. Only 4 out of 524 passengers survived. August 1985

Argentina defeats Germany in the finals of the world football championship with 3-1. 1986

Several Live Aid concerts are collecting donations for Ethiopia against starvation. Tina Turner and Mick Jagger are giving a show together. 1985

The council of the EU sets the flag with the start as the official EU flag. May 1986

The US American spaceship ‘Challenger’ explodes shortly after its start. Every member of the crew died, including 6 astronauts and a private person, the teacher Christa McAuliffe. January 1986

Prozac capsules where invented and released in the USA market and where the first anti-depression pills. 1987

It is the first time that the Simpsons. invented by Matt Groening,  are shown as a series of 30 seconds spots in the Tracey Ullman show. Because of its success, it becomes an own television series. 1987

The Musee d’Orsay of Paris is opening in an old train station, the Gare d’Orsay . The exhibition of the museum includes mainly French paintings and sculptures from the time between 1848 and 1915. December 1986

Christian Lacroix presents his first  haute couture collection and makes long pouf skirts and giant hats with key like decoratives and flower motives famous. He becomes one of the most famous fashion designers of his time. 1987

The Dow-Jones-Index falls for about 23%. That is the highest decrease limit in one day, in the history of the stock market.                        October 1987

The fast food chain McDonald’s plans the opening of restaurants in the Soviet Union. 1988

The airplane PAN-AM 103 explodes on the way from the London airport Heathrow  to the Kennedy airport of New York, because of a bomb on board of the airplane. The airplane crushes in Scotland. 259 people are found dead.

December 1988

The Seto Great Bridge is being opened for traffic in Japan. It consists out of 6 bridges that are 9 kilometers long.

April 1988

The arch bishop of Turin in Italy, claims that with the latest computer technology, the face of Jesus Christ can be visualized on the grave cloth of Turin which can be dated back to medieval times. October 1988

The Grande Arche de la Fraternite is finished due to the ‘200th anniversary’ of the French revolution, in the area called La Defense in Paris. July 1989

Czechoslovakian masses celebrate the fall of the communistic regimes on the Wenzelplatz in Prague. November 1989



  • Chris Eisenberg, Tim Davies, Matt Chilton, (2009), Weltgeschichte in Bildern, Germany, h.f. Ullmann
By annaroditi

Back to Nature- Folk Craft in the 70’s

During the seventies there was a huge popularity of the 60’s cult ‘ do it your own’ and the evening classes and books on craft started becoming more wanted and popular to the youth. These facts grew an interest creating own garments and embellishment styles at home. One of the factors that forced this trend was the facts that the decade was found with economical and oil crisis, reason that heightened the interest in the ecology and the ‘back to the Earth’ ethics. The same time, in the UK, the three-day week and was introduced and bread strikes happened, so the families were forced to do baking, weaving, knitting, patchwork and embroidery a house business
This is how the folkloric look came to the surface in the beginning of the 70-‘s and lasted until the end of the decade. The people who followed this style, exemplified the naturalistic alternative lifestyle of a generation that went back to the land. Once the idyllic lifestyle was as described, back to the nature, the clothing required natural fabrics, hand- tooled ornaments and crafted clothing that was believed to be meaningful and timeless. The whole style was recognizable by a strong romantic element of the times, with a use of patch worked prints that indicated a nurturing zeitgeist opposite to the futuristic disposable ideals of the mid- sixties.
Some of the key elements of the trend were the Navajo silver jewellery, the Peruvian style knits, clothknit printed DIY-fashion, ethnic blending and peasant styles and as a footwear were the clogs.


By annaroditi

Vivienne Westwood- Bondage and Punk style in the 70’s

During the 70’s, Malcolm McLaren successfully crafted ‘Sex Pistols’ with all their style and look. The massive movement of punk had started and behind this, apart from him, was his great real-life partner and cohort in concocting, not only the Sex Pistols, but the innovator of punk fashion, the well known Dame Vivienne Westwood.

Her bondage-tartan red and black suits, the leather studs and the famous shocking tees were the official uniform of the punk movement during the 70’s. This clothing lashed out against  hygiene, authority, rules, corporate rock, and mainstream society. It was a refresh of the fashion, that the time needed in order for new culture to rise, a reset that would inspire for music, art and fashion to this day. Vivienne Westwood stated herself :’ I’m not trying to do something different, I’m trying to do the same thing but in a different way’. Innovators to the time where Sex Pistols of course, Siouxsie Sioux, Chrissie Hynde and Jordan.

McLaren and Westwood opened their first boutique ‘Sex’ on King’s Road inChelseain 1971. It started out as small record store where McLaren and a friend peddled vinyl, magazines and rock memorabilia.  I t soon changed into ‘Let it rock’ which was a hip teddy boy shop for used and new clothes. Two years later it turned to ‘To fast to live, to young to die’ but shortly after, it was renamed ‘Sex’ again. The shop sold a range of innovative fashion designed by Vivienne Westwood as well as  authentic bondage & fetish gear. Punk finally had a name, a style and an official shop.


By annaroditi

Pure London- 14/02/2012

Pure London is a bi-annual fashion trading exhibition that takes place at Olympia London. A fashion buyer can find there womenswear, young fashion, footwear, accessories and childrenwear. Visitors can book their entry online and that will be non-chargeable otherwise a charge of 20 pounds would be taken. I visited the exhibition on Tuesday the 14th of February, 2012. In the big whole, there where about 1000 brands in two floors, where the buyers could see and have their models trying the clothes, talk with the wholesalers and arrange deliveries for their businesses. The buyers had a leading guidance by Drapers which  is theUK’s leading weekly title for the fashion industry, with news, trends, jobs and business advice.

A great help for those people who where about to make a business decision was WGSN which had arranged a lecture in order to inform the buyers about the upcoming trends. WGSN   is the leading global service providing online research, trend analysis and news to the fashion, design and style industries.

The lecture that started at 12:00 was based on the three main trends that WGSN has predicted for A/W 2012-2013 and those where: Hyperculture, Radical Neutrality and Ecohedonism. The presentation illustrated the basic colours, shapes and fabrics that the three trends will cover. The two screens on the sides of the stage showed images with examples of key fashion designers, accessories, flat drawings and fabrications, as well as inspiration boards. During the presentation models where walking all the way through the stage in order to present some basic outfits with which the lecture was supported. At the end of the lecture, WGSN had arranged a mini catwalk show, presenting more outfits based on the three trends.



WGSN,(2012). WGSN lecture about the three main trends of Autumn/ Winter 2012-2013, at Pure-London Exhibition.[speech]( Personal communication, 14 February 2012)

By annaroditi

60’s- The Space-Age Outfit ( 1964- 1969)

With access to TV becoming much more widespread in the 60’s, fact and fiction merged when cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man to fly out of the earth and sci-fi no longer looked so far achieved. The people who leaved in that time and especially the younger ones, where very affected by the fact, and that when fashion designers got inspiration to launch collection based on the space travelling. First to go, was Andre Courreges who, in 1964, launched his collection Space age in his house in Paris. Couture started becoming increasingly irrelevant and innovative, as fashion was artificiality influenced and combined with the great use of new materials such as paper, plastic and perspex. The sixties ‘life as art’ stance translated into the Mylar and inflatables decorating London boutiques and the silver walls of Andy Warhol’s ‘Factory” . Geometric shapes and space age fabrics where key elements of the style.

Other key trends and designers of the Space-Age Outfit:

The disc dress that the Spansh designer Paco Rabanne created in 1967 was a key garment of the decade. The dresses of the collection where made of silvered perspex discs which where attached together with metalo chains.

Another very famous garment was the Cosmos cream tunic of Pierre Cardin in 1967. His Cosmos unisex collection dressed men and women as if they were about to embark upon a space odyssey, in matching unitards, zippered jumpsuits, tunics and leggings.

Brothers Andrew Oliver and Ray Goldsmith started creating eyewear in the UK and they where the third generation of designers at the helm of the family eyewear firm. In the 60’s. they designed a collection of sunglasses inspired by the space style.

Elements of Fashion:

  • goggles and visors
  • Jeanloup Sieff’s photographs of Doniyale Luna in space-age fashion for Nova magazine
  • white with coloured detailing
  • 2001: A space Odyssey
  •  Pucci flight- attendant uniforms for Braniff Airlines with bubble helmets

Marshall McLuhan’s The Gutenburg Galaxy


  • Glamoursurf, (2008). Space age fashion in the 1960’s.Glamoursplash[blog] 18 November. Available at : <; [Accessed 12 February 2012]
  • cosmocorps2000 , (2008). Space-Age Futurism Fashion Mort Garson 60’s Available at : <> [ Accessed 12 February 2012]
  • Plasticpopsicle, (2011). Vintage Glamour: 1960s Space Age Fashion [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 12 February 2012]
  • Nj  Stevenson, (2011)  The chronology of fashion: from empire dress to ethical design, London- United Kingdom, Ivy Press
  • Marnie Fogg, (2011) The fashion design directory, London- United Kingdom, Thames & Hudson

By annaroditi

‘The Vexed Story”

Vexed Generation is aUnited Kingdombased brand formed by the designers Adam Thorpe and Joe Hunter. Having launched their first collection in the year 1995, the designers got inspiration and cause of creativity by the street life and matters. Disturbed by the infringement of civil liberties which the recently introduced Criminal Justice Bill of 1994 had brought about as well as the introduction of the CCTV cameras that the law brought to the city, the two designers created innovative garments despite the lack of fashion training and experience.

The designers’ brief was to create functional clothing that would relate to the political form of the time as well as being practical and fitting to today’s generation urban style. The designers proved via their designs that clothing can be more that what the surface shows, it can have meaning and value beyond price, and it can reject social orders.

Many design and use of material innovations have emerged from Vexed HQ with a signature piece of the brand being the Ballistic Nylon Parka Neoprene Coat which aim in the personal safety and protection against air pollution but also allowed another direction of consideration of the design such as street protest and CCTV surveillance.


  • Roth, G., (1996) Vexed Generation [ online magazine] Issue 29,Frieze Magazine. Available at : <; [Accessed 2 February 2012]
  • Anderson, J., (2012) LABELS WE HAVE LOVED #1: VEXED GENERATION [online magazine] Velour Magazine. Available at: <> [Accessed 2 February 2012]
  • Fashion Space Gallery, ( 2011). eX de Medici / Vexed Generation[online]. Available at : <> [Accessed 2 February 2012]
  • Channel 4. Vexed Parka [online]. Available at: < > [Accessed 2 February 2012]
By annaroditi

” The Swinging 60’s”

The decade of 1960-1970 came to change the world as well as the fashion history dramatically. A series of events during that period deliberated the lifestyle and habits of people and so their style and appearance.Historical events such as the erection of the Berlin wall in 1961, that reflected the impacts of communism to the western world, had a massive impact.Great event of that time was the assassination of John E. Kennedy and his wife Jacqueline refused to take of her pink Chanel suit with her husband’s blood(1963). The man’s first step on the moon(1969) and the biggest offensive of Vietnam war(1967), even the ” Happy Birthday Mr. President” song of Marilyn Monroe(1962) were facts that effected fashion.

From top left to bottom right:
1. Salvador Dali gets rewarded for his work and contribution to the Spanish culture.
2. Neil Armstrong landed on the moon for the first time in human history, 1969.
3. Coalmine desaster in Aberfan, South Wales, 1966.
4. John E. Kennedy’s assassination, 1963.
5. Alfred Hitchcock is directing ” Psycho”, 1960
6. Juri Gagarin, first man travelling into space, 1961.
7. Roy Lichtenstein is creating his famous ‘Whaam’ pop art, 1963.
8. The Berlin wall was erected, 1961.
9. Marilyn Monroe sings ” Happy birthday Mr. President”, 1962.

The world of music inspired the young generation  which started becoming instrumental in commerce and culture and the approval of parents was not a priority as it used to be in the 50’s. Great artists such as the Beatles, Bob Dylan and Jimmy Hendrix became popular and influenced the young generation and Woodstock festival created the flower power fashion.

From top left to bottom right:

1. Woodstock Festival

2. Bob Dylan

3. Beatlemania

4. Faye Dunaway in Bonnie and Clyde, 1967

5. Marilyn Monroe Diptych by Andy Warhol, 1962

6. Beatles

Teenagers and their ideas of a new social order inspired clothe makers such as Mary Quant  who created several youthful shapes. Key fashion designers of the time, such as Pierre Cardin, André Courrèges, Emanuel Ungaro and Raco Rabanne responded by introducing futuristic fashion using synthetic sports fabrics, fact that improved the democratization of fashion.

 From top left to bottom right:

1. Jane Birkin and Gervase, 1968

2. Mary Quant, 1962

3. Swimwear from iconoclast Rudi Gernreich, 1968

4. Bunny suit in white sateen, Courreges, 1969

5. Pierre Cardin mixes architectural form and fashion, 1969

6. Corduroy suit, Mr Fish, 1967

7. Yves Saint Laurent’s Mondrian dress, 1965

8. Lycra Jumpsuit, Rudi Gernreich and Giorgio Sant’ Angelo experiment with strech and active wear, 1960

9. Gingham shift worn by  Pauline Stone, Barbara Hulanicki, 1964

10.  André Courrèges, 1967

11. Disc dress, Paco Rabanne, 1967

A great revolution in the world of fashion is based on the 60’s, the mini skirt which was brought in the streets of London in 1966 . The idealism of the final years of the 60’s embraced fantasy, psychedelia and nostalgic longing that brought fashion into a romantic mix of  craft, colour, pattern and texture, gypsy and hippie clothing.

From top left to bottom right:

1. The 60’s female- Lesley Hornby aka Twiggy- 60’s great fashion icon, 1966

2. The first shaped tights, 1961

3. Unisex, mid- late 60’s, Three-piece suit, Yves Saint Laurent, 1967

4. Paper dress, American Scott Paper Company produced a range of promotional paper A-line dresses in Op Art and plaise prints, and disposable fashion was realised.

5. Space -age erotica, Jane Fonda as Barbarella, 1968

6. Kaftan dress, Zandra Rhodes, 1969

7. Topless swimsuit, Rudi Gernreich, 1964

8. “Variable Sheet”, zipped panel mini, Stephen Willats, 1965


  • Nj  Stevenson, (2011)  The chronology of fashion: from empire dress to ethical design, London- United Kingdom, Ivy Press
  • Marnie Fogg, (2011) The fashion design directory, London- United Kingdom, Thames & Hudson
  • Chris Eisenberg, Tim Davies, Matt Chilton, (2009), Weltgeschichte in Bildern, Germany, h.f. Ullmann
By annaroditi